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Harvesting juicy raspberries is every gardener's dream. However, not everyone knows how to properly care for the bushes so as not to harm them. Usually mistakes in leaving are made in the fall. How to avoid them and not ruin your harvest, we will tell you in our article.
Incorrect pruning of raspberries leads to problems that lead to a decrease in the quantity and quality of the crop. If you cut the shrubs in late autumn, then the shoots do not have time to prepare for winter. Including, it inhibits the development of bushes. It is important to remember that the most successful pruning time is two to three weeks before the first frost. It is important to remove the "correct branches". If you cut only the outer ones, then a thickening will form in the center of the bush. This will lead to crop diseases. Also, remember that during pruning, you must not damage the buds, otherwise the entire bush may die after a while.
It used to be thought that the bushes can be bent to the ground. However, experienced gardeners are moving away from this method of preparing plants for winter. Bending down can be dangerous. Raspberries will easily survive the winter, because they hide under the snow. But in early spring, when the snow begins to melt, the most productive part of the bush will appear on the surface. So the bush can completely die off. You can replace the bending as follows: tie the shoots with a rope between each other four or five in one bundle and stretch them on both sides of the bush. You can also pull them to the trellis. In an inclined position, raspberries will survive the winter perfectly. Most importantly, do not forget to untie the shoots in the spring.
If you cover the raspberries too early, the shoots may start to undermine. Roots, bark and buds will be at risk. The pests will begin to breed in suitable conditions, which can rob you of your seasonal harvest. Cover the berries when stable subzero temperatures come at night, and during the day - about + 8 ... + 10 degrees. If the snow has not fallen, then do not cover the bushes until the ground is frozen. Look for the weather forecast and do not rely on the calendar. In this case, excessive care of the shoots can harm them. When the time is right, cover the bushes with agrotechnical cloth or felt. If you follow these simple recommendations in the fall, you will get healthy bushes with berries in the spring. Do not prune the bushes too late, do not bend them to the ground for the winter, and do not cover too early to avoid controversy. Then the berries will ripen healthy, and the quantity and quality of the harvest will pleasantly surprise you.
July market in a small Kuban town. There is so much on the shelves! There are also cherries, sweet cherries, strawberries and apricots, there are already apples, peaches, nectarines, cherry plums ... Sellers cheerfully invite customers: “Take it! I have no "meat!" Well, of course, customers won't buy wormy apples. And damaged plums are also of no use to anyone. Therefore, in order to preserve the beautiful appearance and integrity of the fruits, at least a dozen treatments of fruit trees from diseases and pests have already been carried out until July. Without this, it is practically impossible to obtain pure fruits in the Kuban in an industrial version: the pests do not freeze out. Moreover, new ones often appear, the marble bug has now been added. In general, just have time to brush it off. This article will be about what measures to take to save the fruits.
Summer garden pests - how to protect the crop?
Cooking raspberries for cold weather Cooking raspberry bushes for wintering should be in late September or early October, that is, until the time when the air temperature drops below zero. For the winter, the raspberries are bent down, but before that the bushes are prepared.
How to prune raspberries in the fall to prepare for winter? On each bush, we remove all old dry and young thin branches under the root. After removing the excess processes, we should only have thick new trunks, which are shortened from above by 10-20 centimeters. The distance between the bushes should be about 60 cm, if the bush has grown, then chop off the excess trunks with a shovel. These simple guidelines will increase yields and positively affect fruit size.
Before wintering raspberries, it is necessary to remove the leaves from its bushes. This should be done very carefully, without damaging the kidneys. Here you can use the following method: put on a mitten or glove and run it along the shoot from the bottom up. This will remove the leaves without damaging the buds. Leaves should not be left, as they damp, rot and burn the buds. It is worth taking the time to remove leaves.
After cleansing the bushes of leaves, you can bend raspberries to the ground and wire. It should be bent as low as possible (below 50 centimeters) so that the raspberries do not remain above the snow cover and do not freeze.
In order for a shrub to winter well, it is not enough just to clear it of leaves and bend it low to the ground. In winter, you also need to monitor the plant. It will be necessary to add snow, if it is not enough and the raspberry is not completely covered, to eliminate the snow crust when it appears, so that the air passes freely to the raspberry.
In winter, the bushes should be completely covered with snow. This will protect raspberries from both frost and hares.... If we want to additionally protect the bushes with a layer of straw, then it should be about 20-25 centimeters. And it is better to place this straw in a compost heap in the fall so that mice do not get to the raspberries in winter.
If we performed all the actions correctly, then most of the shoots should overwinter well. Shoots that are severely damaged by frost must be removed so that the rest of the bushes do not become ill. To do this, you need to carefully examine all the bushes, freeing them from snow. It is better to do this in early spring, when the plants are still dormant.
The crop yield depends on the competent choice of timing, territory, cultivation options, and subsequent care. It is enough to do everything right at once, and for a long time the family will be provided with tasty and healthy berries.
The plant prefers lighted, open, but protected from winds and drafts, corners of the site. Grows well along fences, next to outbuildings.
The land should be fertile, moisture-consuming, and the site should be without a close occurrence of groundwater. The culture does not tolerate lowlands, wetlands, places where snow melts for a long time in spring. It is important to ensure normal air circulation between the bushes.
Increased soil moisture, thickening due to close placement of plants is detrimental to the roots and shoots, the berries begin to hurt, become vulnerable to pests.
Soils with a neutral acidity level (pH 6.5-7), light loams are desirable. Peat and rotted compost are added to sandy soils. Sand is added in clay areas. Acidic soils are cultivated by adding fluff lime or dolomite flour.
Take into account the crops that previously grew in this place, and those that will be next to the gooseberry. Raspberries and all types of currants are excluded from the “neighbors” and predecessors, since these berry bushes have common pests and diseases. Places where greens, legumes, potatoes, beets were previously grown are suitable.
The pit for the plant is prepared 10-14 days before the intended planting. In size, it should be slightly larger than the roots of the transplanted bush. Drainage is required (fragments of bricks, gravel, expanded clay), nutritious soil mixture. The day before work, water is poured into the pit (2-5 buckets).
Cultivation schemes are determined in advance. There are several ways to transplant gooseberries.
The choice is influenced by the method of cultivation of gooseberries: on a trellis, one multi-stem bush or a stem.
Conditionally, the time of caring for raspberries in the fall, preparation for winter can be divided into two periods: early and late, each of which has its own agronomic measures.
The early autumn period starts at the end of August, immediately after the harvest. Throughout its entire length, fertilizing, raspberry pruning, and watering are carried out.
The beginning of the onset of the late autumn period is considered to be the loss of leaves in the raspberry tree, and the end is the establishment of a constant outdoor temperature not higher than 0 ° C. At this time, experienced summer residents organize preventive work against pests and diseases, the last pruning and shelter of the culture.
Blackberries are similar in appearance to raspberries. It contains a variety of elements that are most valuable in the human diet. The popularity of the berry is so high that it began to be grown in the Urals and Siberia. There are many varieties of this culture. Proper care and fertilization will ensure high yields. Before feeding the blackberry, you must carefully study the types and rules of fertilization.
Blackberry care, such as watering, preparing for the winter cold, fertilizing, is common for all varieties. There are some differences in pruning. For tall species, it is required to form a bush every year. Pruning consists of pinching the tops of the main branches. This will stimulate the growth of young twigs and the bush will be more lush.
A berry growing by a sexton is unpretentious to the growing environment. The varieties growing in the country, on the contrary, are capricious. Therefore, in order to properly care for garden blackberries, you need to know all the intricacies of care.
The blackberry is a drought tolerant plant, as its roots extend several meters into the ground. Also, breeders have bred garden varieties that tolerate a lack of moisture in the soil well. However, it is necessary to water it. The plant is especially sensitive to a lack of moisture during the period of flowering and ripening of fruits. The main rule of watering is moderation. An excess of water will lead to root rot and the death of the shrub.
Garden blackberry flowering
The best amount of water for the bush during the formation of fruits is 15-20 liters per week.
In other periods, it is necessary to assess the condition of the soil and not allow it to be unnecessarily dry.
During the season, it is necessary to carry out several procedures of loosening the soil. Depth 10 cm. In parallel, all weeds are harvested. Loosening is especially important in autumn so that in winter the soil near the roots is less frozen. This culture does not tolerate severe frosts. Therefore, an open bush, in a cold period, cannot be left. For the safety of the plant, it must be covered for the winter.
Preparing blackberries for winter
The preparation process for wintering consists of the following stages:
You cannot cover the culture with film. Under it, blackberries will rot, and moisture is a good breeding ground for the fungus. The most unfavorable time is the beginning of winter without snow. Therefore, the shelter process should be done until the cold period begins.
How to cover shrubs in winter
The main crop care is carried out in spring, summer and autumn.
Spring care is to restore the strength of the bush after the winter period. At this time, the culture must be provided with all the nutrients that will increase the yield.
In the spring, the following actions are carried out:
It is also necessary to care for blackberries in the fall. The main essence of care during this period is preparation for frost. The following procedure is performed:
The spacing of the blackberry also requires care actions: remove weeds, loosen the soil slightly. In the autumn period (October-November), the soil is plowed to a depth of 15-17 cm, making a single application of phosphorus, humus, potash fertilizers into it for several years. The soil is mulched with organic matter (manure, peat), scattering in both directions. These actions are carried out before the appearance of the first shoots. Not all types of mulch will work. For example, the slow decomposition of sawdust, bark, mushroom compost protects against weeds and drought. Grass and straw are best suited. They are placed on top of a layer of peat, humus. This mulch protects against dryness and strengthens the effect of fertilizing.
In summer, in the heat of June and July, when the temperature reaches +30 degrees, blackberries are watered at least three times a week. Pour a bucket of water over one bush. Watering is done twice a day: in the morning and in the evening.
At normal air humidity and a temperature not higher than +25 degrees, as well as in the presence of rain, watering should be abandoned. This procedure is carried out only in those cases when the soil dries out by about 15 centimeters.
Planting and watering scheme for blackberries
It is necessary to feed the blackberry to obtain a bountiful harvest. The basic rules for fertilization include:
The main task of the gardener is to decide the question of how to additionally fertilize the blackberry. All fertilizers can be divided into mineral and organic fertilizers.
The most popular types of mineral dressings for the described culture include:
Pros: it dissolves well in water, effective in use, ease of use, quickly absorbed by the plant, low price.
Universal fertilizer Master for all types of plants
Pros: leaves no residue on leaves, affordable price, effective to use
Cons: inconvenient storage.
Plantafol is used to feed leaves
Pros: dissolves quickly in water, effective, few toxins
Kemira is used for a good harvest
Pros: ease of use, efficiency, low cost.
Cons: inconvenient packaging.
Solupotass has a beneficial effect on the ripening of berries
Pros: efficiency, ease of use.
Agriflex promotes active plant growth
Organic fertilizers improve the quality of the soil while maintaining a balance of water and air conditions. These include:
Pros: high quality, low cost, safe composition.
Fertimix Biohumus - organic fertilizer
Pros: quick effect, natural composition, low price.
Novofert berry, increases the yield of berries
Pros: low cost, ease of use.
Riverm protects plants from fungal diseases
Pros: effectively improves soil quality, does not have a strong odor.
Bioterra - soil fertilizer
In the spring (April), the blackberry bush needs nitrogen fertilization. To get a rich harvest it is worth:
The feeding of the root system with humus is sufficient for 2-3 years. If the soil is infertile, then it is necessary to feed it with Kemira, the Master, etc.
In the spring, fertilizing the soil is mandatory. Since it is at this time that the number of pests increases significantly and there is a high probability of infection with various diseases.
For the third time, fertilizers are applied to the crop in question during fruiting (mid-August). It is worth feeding blackberries in the summer with complex mineral fertilizers. It is necessary to fertilize the bush in moderation, otherwise, the culture can be severely damaged. The leaves are sprayed with potassium dissolved in water, as well as phosphorus and nitrogen. Mineral fertilizers are used only in wet soil.
During the ripening period of berries, the following feeding is carried out for the plant: potassium sulfate (2 tbsp. L.) Is dissolved in water (10 l). For 1 sq. m use 6-7 liters of solution. Before carrying out this procedure, the earth is thoroughly spilled with wood ash.
Wood ash for soil
During the autumn digging (September), the soil is fed with fertilizers, which consist of organic matter. Between the rows, they dig up the earth with a pitchfork, making the introduction of a mixture of superphosphates, manure and potassium sulfate. Every year, humus and compost are used, which are prepared in advance.
When choosing a fertilizer for a crop, it is important to take into account the type of crop grown. The main difference is the presence of thorns: thornless and thorny species. By the amount of the harvested crop - repair and ordinary.
Among the home options for feeding this culture, there are:
To improve the quality characteristics of chicken manure, it is dried and kept in plastic containers with holes for better air passage.
Chicken droppings - top dressing for the soil
For feeding with droppings in the fall, use a bucket of mixture (3-7 kg per 5 sq. M). Once the culture feeding procedure is carried out in May-June, another - during the formation of berries, the third time, when the fruits ripen.
Blackberries do not have any claims to the soil. However, it is best to grow the crop on well-drained, fertilized loamy soils that have a neutral or slightly acidic reaction. Limestone soil is not suitable for this crop. It is low in iron and magnesium, so the culture can get sick with chlorosis. Acidic soils with a pH of 6 are most suitable for the plant.
Sandy and poor soil needs to increase its water retention capacity. To do this, it is fed with organic fertilizers. Chernozem soils are also suitable for blackberries. The carbonate layer of such soils should be below 1.2-1.3 m. Clay soils are not suitable for culture.
Blackberries are a crop that is disease and pest resistant. Plant problems arise only with improper care. Among harmful insects, raspberry beetles are especially dangerous. You can fight them only by collecting ripe berries.
Over-watering can cause root rot. When it occurs, the soil is carefully drained and the volume of the poured water is adjusted. Fungal infections occur more often in the spring with high humidity, after cleaning the shelter. Therefore, it is worth covering the bush only with breathable materials. If the plant lacks iron or magnesium, it becomes sick with chlorosis. The disease manifests itself in yellowing and wilting of the leaves. To eliminate the problem, the shrub is fed with mineral fertilizers.
Blackberries require care and careful maintenance. However, its cultivation does not cause any particular problems. Fertilizers play an important role in growing crops. They should be selected depending on the variety, soil and season. If you properly care for the plant, then feeding will be necessary only at certain times of the year.